Types of Bamboo in India

Bamboo, often called "Green Gold," is notable in India's ecological, economic, and cultural landscapes. India, the second-largest bamboo producer globally, boasts an impressive diversity of this plant, with around 125 species spread across its vast geography, except for the region of Kashmir, where it does not occur naturally​​. This article delves into the rich variety of bamboo found in India, highlighting their unique characteristics, uses, and significance.

Bamboo, with its scientific name 'Bambusoideae,' is a perennial, evergreen plant belonging to the grass family. It is known for its fast growth, versatility, and strength, making it an invaluable resource in various sectors such as construction, handicrafts, paper industry, and more. The eastern Indian states, particularly Assam and Pradesh, are renowned for their bamboo forests and cultivation, contributing significantly to the country's bamboo production.

10 Types of Bamboo Found in India

Bambusa Strita: 

Bambusa Strita Bamboo

Bambusa Strita, thriving in the Indian climate, has a range of 17-32 feet of growth. This bamboo is known for its straight, robust culms, making it an ideal choice for structural applications. Its versatility extends to the production of musical instruments and intricate crafts, showcasing the cultural integration of bamboo in traditional Indian craftsmanship. The adaptability of Bambusa Strita, a common bamboo species in India, to various soil types and climates makes it a popular choice for reforestation and soil erosion control projects across India.

Bambusa Tulda: 

Bambusa Tulda Bamboo

Bambusa Tulda, one of the bamboo varieties in India, reaching heights of 15-25 feet, is celebrated for its straight and flexible culms, which are highly valued in constructing eco-friendly housing and scaffolding. This bamboo's unique fibre composition makes it indispensable in the paper and pulp industry in West Bengal, contributing significantly to sustainable paper production. The species also plays a role in traditional medicine, where its extracts are used for their anti-inflammatory properties.

Bambusa polymorpha: 

Bambusa Polymorpha Bamboo

Characterized by its large, evergreen clumps, Bambusa polymorpha, one of the bamboo varieties found in India, can soar to heights of 20-40 feet. Its sweet-tasting shoots are a delicacy in regional cuisines, adding to the biodiversity of edible plants. This bamboo's dense foliage provides excellent coverage for privacy screens and windbreaks in landscape designs, while its strong culms are sought after for eco-friendly construction and furniture making.

Bambusa Balcooa: 

Bambusa Balcooa Bamboo

Bambusa Balcooa, an important bamboo species for house construction in India a bamboo variety in India is a towering species that can grow up to 73 feet; it is known for its thick-walled culms that provide exceptional strength and durability. This makes it a preferred choice for heavy-duty construction, especially in rural areas where bamboo is a foundational building material. The species is also instrumental in crafting traditional water vessels and fishing rods, underscoring its significance in the daily lives of many communities.

Bambusa Arundinacea: 

Bambusa Arundinacea Bamboo

This species, dominating 15% of India's bamboo forests, is notable for its thorny culms reaching up to 50 feet. Bambusa Arundinacea is integral to the diet in some regions, where its shoots are consumed for their nutritional value. The plant's resilience and rapid growth rate make it a valuable resource for reclaiming degraded lands and establishing green belts.

Dendrocalamus Strictus: 

Dendrocalamus Strictus Bamboo

Known as Male Bamboo, Dendrocalamus Strictus, a significant bamboo variety in Tripura, India, is distinguished by its solid, durable nature, which makes it ideal for crafting tools, furniture, and agricultural implements. This variety, capable of growing 30-70 feet tall, is also used in paper manufacturing, contributing to the sustainable paper industry. Its resilience against pests and diseases makes it a reliable choice for large-scale plantations.

Melocanna Baccifera: 

Melocanna Baccifera Bamboo

Known also as Berry Bamboo, Melocanna Baccifera, an Indian bamboo, is unique due to its fruiting nature and aggressive growth, reaching heights of 32-65 feet. Due to its flexibility and strength, this bamboo species is primarily used in construction in Meghalaya, particularly in regions prone to natural disasters. This bamboo's fruits are a food source for wildlife, playing a crucial role in forest ecosystems.

Dendrocalamus Giganteus: 

Dendrocalamus Giganteus Bamboo

The Giant Bamboo, an essential bamboo species in India, stands tall at up to 100 feet, making it one of the largest. Its impressive size and strength are harnessed in creating large structures and art installations, showcasing bamboo's potential in contemporary design and architecture. The species is also valued for its aesthetic appeal in extensive gardens and parks.

Gigantochloa Rostrata: 

Rostrata Bamboo

Gigantochloa Rostrata, with its tufted culms reaching 16-26 feet, is favored for its aesthetic appeal in landscaping. This bamboo is utilized in producing eco-friendly household items and traditional crafts, highlighting its versatility. The species is also part of agroforestry systems, contributing to the sustainability of multi-crop environments.

Bambusa Nana:

Bambusa Nana Bamboo

Admired for its ornamental foliage, Bambusa Nana, a bamboo plant, grows up to 30 feet and is widely used in landscaping for screening and decorative purposes. The edible shoots of this bamboo add to its value, offering both aesthetic beauty and practical benefits. Bambusa Nana's adaptability to various climatic conditions makes it a popular choice for urban green spaces.

Ecological and Economic Importance

Bamboo plays a pivotal role in India's ecosystem by providing habitat for wildlife, preventing soil erosion, and contributing to the green cover. Economically, it supports various industries and provides livelihoods to millions, especially in rural areas. The versatility of bamboo makes it a sustainable alternative to wood, aligning with global efforts towards environmental conservation.

Challenges and Conservation

Despite its numerous benefits, the bamboo sector in India faces challenges such as over-exploitation, inadequate management practices, and the need for modernization in bamboo-based industries. Addressing these challenges through sustainable management practices, research, and technological advancements is crucial for maximizing bamboo's potential.


Bamboo has immense potential for India's sustainable development with its diverse species and widespread availability. Bamboo can contribute significantly to achieving environmental sustainability and socio-economic growth by harnessing its ecological, economic, and cultural values. The myriad types of bamboo in India, an initiative of the national bamboo mission, underscores the country's rich biodiversity and the need to preserve this invaluable resource for future generations.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of bamboo in India?

India is home to various bamboo species such as Indian timber bamboo, Bengal bamboo, clumping bamboo, dragon bamboo, thorny bamboo, black bamboo, and many more.

What is the National Bamboo Mission in India?

The National Bamboo Mission in India is a government initiative promoting bamboo cultivation, propagation, and processing for economic growth and environmental benefits.

What are the uses of bamboo in India?

Bamboo in India is used for construction, as a source of timber, for bamboo farming, and as an ornamental plant, among other uses.

How does bamboo contribute to the economy in India?

Bamboo contributes to the Indian economy through its various uses, such as in construction and agriculture and as a source of livelihood for bamboo farmers and artisans.

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